CRYO-Schippl informs:


Cryogenic Systems and Transfer Lines

Cryogenics is engineering at extremely low temperatures

"Cryo" comes from the Greek word "Kryos" and means ice cold. Cryogenics is technique at very low temperatures
Physical properties of gases at temperatures lower than minus 160°C can be used for quite different applications. Transfer lines play a decisive role for the distribution of refrigerants.

- 1853 Joule finds the cooling effect of expanding gas
- 1889 Dewar liquefies H2
- 1895 Von Linde liquefies air
- 1908 Kamerlingh-Onnes liquefies Helium at -269 °C.
- 1916 Production of liquid Argon at -186 °C
- 1922 Production of liquid Neon at -246 °C
- 1948 Cryogenics starts its commercial story of success
...Frozen Foods, Metallurgy, Processing of Plastics, Recycling, Medicine, Production
...Technology, Ground Freezing, Rocket Fuel, LNG...
- 1987 First superconducting material on ceramics, cooling with LN2 possible (-196°C)
- 1998 Installation of a long superconducting cable in Japan, cooling with LHe (-269°C)
- 2000 Installation of superconducting cables with LN2 cooling (-200°C)
- 2020 First ship for LH2 transport from Kawasaki Heavy Industries

For further information click on the buttons

- Info Low Temperature Technique

- Papers

- Insulation

Vacuum Gauges
..... Pirani/Penning
..... Spinning Rotor Gauge VIM-1

- Transfer Lines